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Essay For All is the most sought-after Diabetic Microvascular Complications Nursing Assignment Help platform. Diabetes encompasses a group of chronic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia. For this reason, health professionals use lifestyle and pharmaceutical interventions to mitigate and control hyperglycemia. The primary goal of diabetes treatment focuses on the adequate supply of glucose to body tissues. In addition, diabetes treatment strives to ensure that body tissues are not destroyed by hyperglycemia.
The significance of protecting the body from hyperglycemia cannot be sidelined. Studies show that hyperglycemia’s direct and indirect effects on the human vascular tree are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Generally, the adverse impacts of hyperglycemia are segmented into the following:
- Macrovascular complications comprising coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, and stroke
- Microvascular complications include diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy
Furthermore, nursing students and physicians must understand the nexus between diabetes and vascular diseases because diabetes prevalence has continued to rise over the years. Consequently, the high prevalence of diabetes in the United States has increased the demand for primary and secondary prevention of these complications. Diabetes treatment also focuses on preventing macrovascular and microvascular complications associated with screening, diagnosis, and management of the conditions.
Macrovascular complications of diabetes refer to coronary arteries, peripheral arteries, and cerebrovasculature diseases. In most cases, the initial macrovascular illness is linked to an atherosclerotic plaque in the vasculature supplying blood to the heart, brain, limbs, and other body organs. Contrariwise, the late developmental stages of macrovascular disease entail complete obstruction of the vessels. Whenever this happens, it increases the risks of myocardial infarction. Diabetic microvascular complications focus on the long-term complications affecting small blood vessels, such as:
A background understanding of diabetic microvascular complications
Microvascular diabetic complications refer to long-term complications affecting small blood vessels. These include retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Retinopathy comprises non-proliferative retinopathy involving the development of microaneurysms, venous loops, retinal hemorrhages, hard exudates, and soft exudates. Secondly, we have proliferative retinopathy encompassing the presence of new blood vessels in the presence or absence of vitreous hemorrhage.
On the other hand, diabetic nephropathy is persistent proteinuria, which can advance to overt nephropathy, characterized by a progressive decline in renal function resulting in end-stage renal disease. Neuropathy is another diabetic microvascular complication and is associated with nerve pathology. The condition classification is based on the affected nerves. Hence, it includes the focal, diffuse, sensory, motor, and autonomous neuropathy. The prevalence of diabetic microvascular complications consists of the following:
- In retinopathy, microaneurysms formation is primarily the first indication of diabetic retinopathy. Sometimes, microaneurysms might form due to the release of vasoproliferative factors, weakness within the capillary wall, or high intra-luminal pressures. Microaneurysms cause vascular permeability in the macula to cause macular edema, which can adversely affect a person’s central vision. Retinal capillaries obliteration can result in intraretinal microvascular abnormalities. So, as the capillary closure becomes extensive, intraretinal hemorrhages develop
- Secondly, nephropathy occurs due to two pathophysiologic pathways for diabetic nephropathy. The first is that diabetic nephropathy results in an increased glomerular capillary flow that can increase extracellular matrix production and endothelial damage. Whenever this happens, glomerular permeability to micromolecules increases. This can cause mesangial expansion and interstitial sclerosis, which can, in turn, trigger glomerular sclerosis. The second pathway is renal impairment caused by the macrovascular and the repeated unresolved episodes of acute kidney injuries. Reduced glomerular filtration is a risk factor for cardiovascular complications
- The third is neuropathy, whose pathophysiology is complex. Generally, diabetes is associated with low insulin and abnormalities of growth factors. The anomalies are related to the glycation of nerves and particular blood vessels. Autoimmunity might also affect nerve structures resulting in structural damage to the nerves. All these factors trigger neuropathy
Diabetic macrovascular complications also result from hyperglycemia, excess free fatty acids, and insulin resistance.
Microvascular complications of diabetes, as outlined by our Diabetic Microvascular Complications Nursing Assignment Help experts at Essay For All
There are several microvascular complications of diabetes. They include the following types discussed below:
Is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes. Statistics show it accounts for more than ten thousand blindness cases annually in the United States. The risk of developing this condition depends on the duration and severity of hyperglycemia. In addition, the development of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes is closely linked to hyperglycemia severity and hypertension in the United Kingdom. Research also shows that most patients with type 1 diabetes develop diabetic retinopathy two decades later after diagnosis of diabetes. However, in some cases, retinopathy may develop seven years before a person is diagnosed with diabetes in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Is the second microvascular complication of diabetes. It is the leading cause of renal failure in the United States. Microalbuminuria implies the albumin excretion of 30-299 mg/24 hours. So, without appropriate intervention, diabetic patients with microalbuminuria progress to proteinuria and overt diabetic nephropathy. The progression occurs in both type 1 and type two diabetes. Studies outline that approximately 7 percent of type 2 diabetes patients may already have microalbuminuria when diagnosed with diabetes. The pathological changes to the kidney include increased glomerular basement membrane thickness, microaneurysm formation, mesangial nodule formation, and other changes. Diabetic nephropathy screening requires a 24-hour urine collection or a spot urine measurement of microalbumin
Is the presence of symptoms and signs of peripheral nerve dysfunction in persons with diabetes after excluding other possible causes. The risks of developing diabetic neuropathy are proportional to the magnitude and duration of hyperglycemia. In addition, some persons may show genetic attributes affecting their chances of developing such conditions. The nature of the injury to the peripheral nerves from hyperglycemia is unknown but related to mechanisms like polyol accumulation, injuries, and oxidative stress. Equally important, the condition might manifest in different ways, like sensory, multifocal, and autonomic neuropathies.
Approximately 80 percent of amputations occur after a foot injury, which can result from diabetic neuropathy. There is no specific treatment for diabetic neuropathy; however, multiple treatments exist for its symptoms. The underlying goal of the treatment approaches is to control symptoms and mitigate them from worsening through improved glycemic control
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