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Come to Essay For All and get the best multiple myeloma nursing assignment help services our experienced tutors offer. Multiple myeloma is a type of bone marrow cancer. Bone marrow in the body plays wide-ranging roles. For instance, it generates the vital blood components critical for human survival, including platelets, red blood cells, and white blood cells.
Multiple myeloma derives its name from how the condition affects various body parts, including the ribs, pelvis, skull, and spine. The body suffers increased devastating impacts whenever the bone marrow is affected by cancer. For instance, cancerous plasma cells concentrate large amounts in the bone marrow around healthy cells. Instead of releasing helpful antibodies, the cancer cells generate abnormal proteins that result in complications.
Causes of multiple myeloma
Despite much research investigating the cause of multiple myeloma, there is still no determined cause. However, the disease is closely linked with monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance. It is a condition characterized by the excess production of immunoglobulins in the blood. Some research also suggests that multiple myeloma starts with forming of a single abnormal plasma cell within the bone marrow.
Later, the abnormal cell undergoes active division and multiplication. Cancer cells behave differently from healthy cells. On maturity, healthy cells always die. However, cancer cells never attain maturity or die as normal cells but keep accumulating and become disastrous to healthy cells.
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Whenever the cancer cells in the bone marrow crowd around healthy cells, the body’s immune system is impaired in fighting infections. Various risk factors for multiple myeloma are explained in detail in our multiple myeloma nursing assignment help notes. Some of them are;
- Personal history of monoclonal gammopathy of underdetermined significance (MGUS)
- Family history of multiple myeloma
- Black race
- Male sex
- Advancement of age
Each multiple myeloma is unique. Some may result from a genetic mutation. Males are at higher risk of developing various myeloma than their female counterparts, and African Americans over 45 years are more vulnerable to developing the disease. However, people diagnosed with the disease should not worry since it is manageable.
Symptoms of multiple myeloma
Multiple myeloma develops in stages. When in its early stages, it is challenging for one to experience any symptoms. As the condition advances, there are various observable symptoms through which the doctor may assess to determine if the individual suffers from multiple myeloma.
Most types of cancer always form tumors or lumps. However, multiple myeloma is quite different as it entails no lump or tumor formation. The disease only damages the bones hence affecting the bone’s ability to produce healthy blood cells. According to our multiple myeloma nursing assignment help tutors, common symptoms of the disease are;
- Weight loss
- Hypercalcaemia results in:
- Frequent need to urinate
- Extreme thirst
- Breath shortness
- Body weakness and fatigue
- Persistent bone pain
- Kidney problems
- Weak bones that can easily fracture
- Bruising and unusual bleeding
- Repeated infections
- Blurred vision
Ways of staging multiple myeloma
Staging any cancer is always essential for multiple reasons. Whenever a healthcare provider wants to determine the location and size of multiple myeloma, staging cancer becomes necessary. Besides, it offers a basis for the treatment. There are four main classifications used when staging multiple myeloma. MGUS is the first classification whereby blood tests show small amounts of M protein.
Very few people with MGUS are likely to develop multiple myeloma. The second category is isolated or solitary plasmacytomas. It entails various single groups of abnormal plasma cells. SMM is the other category whereby the performed tests display little M protein in the blood. Besides, the classification may be characterized by increased plasma cells in the bone marrow. SMM is a pre-cancerous form of multiple myeloma whereby a person shows mild symptoms.
Multiple myeloma is the final category. It is a stage whereby the performed tests reveal a high percentage of abnormal plasma cells in bone marrow, high M protein levels in the urine or blood, and multiple groups of abnormal plasma cells. Our Multiple myeloma nursing assignment doers recommend using the revised International Staging System for the staging of multiple myeloma, which is based on the following;
- Lactate dehydrogenase
- Beta-2 microglobulin
- Blood tests revealing albumin levels
Characteristics of multiple myeloma
According to our experts, monoclonal gammopathy is when plasma cells produce multiple copies of the same antibody, evident during a routine blood test when assessing for other health conditions. Not every person with monoclonal gammopathy has multiple myeloma. However, individuals diagnosed with multiple myeloma always have monoclonal gammopathy.
Multiple myeloma is a condition that features crowding of the myeloma cells around normal and healthy plasma cells, impairing antibodies’ ability to fight infections. However, the antibodies produced by myeloma cells cannot fight infections making the body vulnerable to most infections.
Bone and calcium problems
In individuals with multiple myeloma, the myeloma cells affect the functioning of cells responsible for keeping the bones strong. However, healthy bones are constantly renewed to maintain and improve their strength. The two main types of bone cells supporting healthy and strong bones are osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
Myeloma cells are responsible for producing a chemical that signals the osteoclasts to speed up the dissolving of the bones. While old bones disintegrate, there are no replacements. Hence, easily fractured bones become a common complication among people with multiple myeloma.
Low blood counts
Low blood counts in people with multiple myeloma result from the overgrowth of plasma cells, crowding the blood-forming cells. Low blood counts result in a reduced level of blood platelets, a condition known as thrombocytopenia. Anemia can also result due to the shortage of red blood cells. Low blood counts also can cause leucopenia, characterized by a shortage of white blood cells.
Common diagnosis for multiple myeloma
With suspected chances of suffering multiple myeloma, the doctor may resolve to perform various tests to determine the presence of the condition and its stage of development. Some of the tests performed are;
Blood chemistry test
It is a type of test that seeks to establish the creatine levels of a patient, the lactic dehydrogenase levels, calcium levels, and albumin levels. In this case, the serum protein electrophoresis helps measure the antibodies in the blood while looking for the presence of monoclonal antibodies.
Complete blood count
Among patients suspected to be suffering from multiple myeloma, the healthcare giver may perform a complete blood count test to determine the amount of white and red blood cells. It also measures the red blood cell concentration and amount of red blood cells in the hemoglobin.
Computed tomography scan
Healthcare givers may use the computed tomography scan to assess for damage linked with multiple myeloma. According to Essay For All tutors, the scan helps detect osteolytic effects of multiple myeloma and small lytic lesions. A computed tomography scan also depicts the impact caused by multiple myeloma on the bones.
X-rays help look for bones that may suffer damage from multiple myeloma. Since multiple myeloma affects various bones like limbs, skulls, ribs, pelvis, and spine, using x-rays may help detect bone damage.
Magnetic resonance imaging
According to our multiple myeloma nursing assignment help professionals, magnetic resonance imaging helps to image the disease due to its effectiveness of superior soft-tissue contract resolution.
Bone marrow biopsies
Based on Essay For All professionals, people suffering from multiple myeloma may require a biopsy to assess the percentage of the abnormal and normal plasma cells available in the bone marrow. The biopsy can also assess the bone marrow for DNA modifications that may facilitate cancer growth.
Treatment for multiple myeloma
The treatment of patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma may differ depending on the symptoms displayed by a person and the severity of the condition. That is why patients with MGUS rarely require treatment but close monitoring and a customized treatment plan. The commonly used treatment plan is with medication purposely to destroy cancer cells.
The doctor can administer the medication through the bloodstream to ensure the distribution of the medicine in the entire body to interact with any possible cancer cells. Another alternative to administering the drugs is an intravenous (IV) tube. The tube is always placed into a vein. It can also be administered orally as a capsule or a pill. The commonly used medication types for multiple myeloma are;
- Bone-modifying drugs
- Immunomodulatory drugs
- Targeted therapy
It is a form of multiple myeloma treatment targeting specific cancer proteins or genes that facilitate cancer survival and growth. Hence, targeted therapy helps block the spread of cancer cells and also controls damage to healthy cells. Some of the targeted therapy used in handling multiple myeloma are;
- Histone deacetylase inhibitors
- Proteasome inhibitors
- Nuclear export inhibitors
- Monoclonal antibodies
- B-cell maturation antigen
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